Flowing Hair Cents (1793)
Flowing Hair Cents varieties are popular among collectors, mainly because the copper cents of 1793-1857 were the first United States coins to attract the attention of collectors in this country. Learn More...
Flowing Hair Cents (1793)
Flowing Hair Cents varieties are popular among collectors, mainly because the copper cents of 1793-1857 were the first United States coins to attract the attention of collectors in this country. Hobbyists both casual and serious were assembling date sets by the mid-19th Century, and this activity grew exponentially after the series' demise in 1857. By that time numismatists had become aware of the many die varieties that resulted from the use of hand tools in completing each die, and large cents were also the first United States coins to be sought extensively by varieties. A number of books and monographs were published over the years describing and classifying these varieties, though all have since been superseded by the references named below.
While the number of persons collecting large cents by date has likely declined in favor of type collecting, the intensity and competition among variety specialists has grown steadily. The traditional favorites remain the early cents of 1793-1814, but the middle dates of 1816-39 now command much greater attention than in previous generations. Due to greater standardization in the die sinking process after 1839, the late dates through 1857 are far more difficult to attribute by varieties, and this has limited their popularity to the most dedicated and patient of collectors. Still, the rare varieties are prized, particularly in the higher grades.
NGC will assign Sheldon (S) numbers to all 1793 Chain and Wreath Flowing Hair Cents. Die Varieties that Sheldon considered so rare as to be non-collectable (NC) were assigned numbers that begin anew with each date. In other words, the first non-collectable variety for each date is NC-1, followed by NC-2, NC-3, etc. While the discovery of additional specimens has reduced the rarity ratings for a number of these formerly non-collectable varieties, Sheldon's NC numbers are still used to identify them. Some collectors still attribute early cents using Sheldon's book, but it is far easier to use the more recent reference by William C. Noyes. This employs the Sheldon numbering system, but it offers superior photographs and attribution points. The posthumously published Walter Breen large cent encyclopedia (edited by Mark Borckardt and Del Bland) features good photos, too, as well as more up-to-date rarity ratings, condition census and pedigree listings. The Breen numbering system, though superior to Sheldon's, is not likely to be adopted, due to widespread familiarity with the Sheldon numbers. Nevertheless, each Breen variety is clearly cross-referenced to Sheldon.
- Breen, Walter & Mark R. Borckardt (editor). Walter Breen’s Encyclopedia of Early United States Cents 1793-1814. Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers & Merena Galleries, 2000.
- Noyes, William C. United States Large Cents 1793-1814. Published by the author, 1991.
- Sheldon, William H. Penny Whimsy: A Revision of Early American Cents. Lawrence, MA: Quarterman Publications, 1976.