What You Need To Know: How "Budget" concerns affect the coin collector
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NOTE: You can view this entire article on my website with images in PDF format by clicking here . It is a 187Kb document, and looks much better in this format (I couldn't duplicate the exact layout here).

 

Deciding What to Collect (part 1)

How “Budget” concerns affect the coin collector

 

Before embarking on your numismatic pursuit and deciding exactly what coins you will buy for your collection, it is sensible to define your collecting goals. Are you interested in merely acquiring coins that attract you, with no particular concern about organizing them as a focused collection? Do you want to focus on a particular series, acquiring an example of every date and mintmark available from the United States mint? What grade would you choose if you did decide to complete a series? Would you include special die-varieties, or mint errors that have, over time, become accepted as part of the series? Is there some definite time limit - a deadline so to speak - by which you would like to feel you have completed your goal? What kind of budget would suit the pursuit of your coins?

 

As you can see, there are plenty of questions that should be considered, including just simply defining what you consider to be "all the coins in a series", since after all, that shapes the endpoint of the collecting endeavor. Certainly there are no right or wrong answers to any of the questions posed here, but deciding early on what direction your collecting will take may save you much time, money and heartache later.

 

My goal with this article is to focus primarily on price considerations when you have decided to assemble a complete series of coins. This discussion will also assume that the goal is to create an album collection, rather than a collection of certified coins, or coins in stand-alone holders (2X2s, or "flips"), so that the objective is an easily-quantified, formal achievement. Bear in mind that discussing "price considerations" addresses only one of the several questions posed in this introduction, and due to space considerations, other aspects will be addressed in separate discussions.

 

Defining what a "complete set" means to a coin collector

 

Let's touch briefly on what may comprise a "complete" set of coins. It is a definition that varies from collector to collector. Often, the coins listed in a widely-respected (or at least well-known) reference book are used as a guide. For example, you might decide that pursuing an example of each of the coins listed in the Buffalo Nickel section of the Redbook holds distinct appeal for the numismatist in you. This is a time-honored set, and it isn't difficult to imagine the many thousands of albums and coin boards that have been filled by coin collectors over the years in pursuit of this wonderful series. Because it is such a well-loved and well-known series, it will form the starting point for our discussion, but the principles discussed here apply to any coin series.

 

The most basic manner of collecting these coins might be to reserve an empty glass jar, and each time you acquire an example of one of the coins listed in the Redbook, you could just drop the coin in the jar, and cross it off your list. Countless collectors have entered the hobby in just this manner.

 

Needless to say, the problems with this method of collecting quickly become self-evident. When wishing to review past purchases, it is not particularly convenient to have a pile of coins to sort through, nor is particularly good for the preservation of your coins to have them clanking around in a glass jar! There is also no obvious visual way to get feedback that indicates the progress toward completion when looking at a collection of individual coins piled up in a jar (though you could always refer to your reference list). Very few advanced collectors would consider this storage method suitable for their coins.

 

One obvious and frequently exercised resolution to the storage problem is to purchase a coin album. In theory, such an album provides a safe and convenient way to store your coins, and because it is pre-labeled for each coin that needs to be placed into each slot, a mere glance is sufficient to determine the current level of completion of the set. But before even purchasing a coin album, an interesting dilemma presents itself, in that various companies themselves have different ideas about what comprises a "complete" set of coins. For example, one manufacturer of coin albums may deem it necessary to acquire only regularly intended mint issues to complete a set. Thus, there would be no place for a 1916 "doubled-die" nickel in their album, nor would there be a spot for a 1937-D "three-legged Buffalo", as neither of those coins was intended by the mint to exist as a distinct issue. There would be no spot for either of the well-known overdates, 1914/3 and 1918/7-D, either. Such an album would permit inclusion strictly of dates and mintmarks as officially produced by the Federal mint.

 

At the other extreme of a definition of a "complete set" of Buffalo nickels, some collectors might consider it necessary to collect only two examples of the entire series to qualify as being "complete"! Specifically, as a type collector, it would be perfectly reasonable to acquire a nice example of a Type 1 and a Type 2 coin, and consider the endeavor successfully concluded. An album would not be necessary for housing a mere two coins, but for the purposes of this discussion, we will agree that we want a more extensive assemblage than merely a dual-coin type set.

 

Many - if not most - Buffalo nickel collectors would adamantly consider any worthy collection incomplete without a representative of the three-legged coin. On the other hand, a significant number of collectors would dismiss overdates or doubled-die varieties from their collections. It is safe to say that such varieties do add interest and challenge to any set, and evolution of collecting tastes has recognized unofficial (or unauthorized) mint issues as part of standard collections, though purists may always insist that only examples of coins as the mint intended them to look should be collected. In other series, examples of noted coins that were not minted according to the mint's intent, yet are regularly collected as part of a complete set, include the 1922 "plain" Lincoln cent, the 1942/1 and 1942/1-D Mercury dime overdates, and the 1918/7-S Standing Liberty quarter.

 

So, in contrast to the manufacturer already discussed, another manufacturer of coin albums may decide that the addition of both the three-legged Buffalo and the 1918/7-D is such an accepted tradition that they must be accommodated in their albums. Thus, you can see that the differing opinions on the part of manufacturers as to what comprises a complete set results in a variety of different kinds albums for collectors to choose for their needs.

 

For the simplification of this discussion, let's decide that the object of our numismatic desires will be the completion of a set of Buffalo nickels of strictly official mint issues, except that to lend interest to the set, we will include the 1918/7-D and 1937-D "three-legged Buffalo" nickels, and let's further assume that we intend to place these coins in a Whitman Classic coin album, as it allows for exactly these specific coins to be accommodated in one convenient and agreeable setting. These albums are popular and widely available, and will serve our example well.

 

The coin collector on a budget

 

Let's make just one final assumption- but an assumption that might be extremely critical to the question of what to collect. It concerns the collectors financial resources:

 

What if, as a coin collector, you are not on an unlimited budget?

 

This is, of course, hardly an unusual situation for most numismatists!

 

Much as one might desire it otherwise, the practical truth is that most of us, as coin collectors, do not have unlimited funds to spend on our coin purchases. While it is true that many affluent collectors pursue coin collecting vigorously, the fact is that most collectors must carefully monitor their spending habits. Despite this fact, I have observed - all too often - a fellow collector embarking on a series which, based on his budget, has no realistic chance of actually ever being completed. Though it is true that the happiest part of coin collecting is in the pursuit of your heart's desire, it is also generally true that pursuing a goal for which you have no possible chance of ever succeeding usually eventually discourages progress toward that goal. I am reminded of several instances that illustrate this.

 

In one case, a good numismatic friend became enamored with the Standing Liberty quarter series, and within a matter of a few months, had purchased several high-grade full-head certified coins. Things seemed to be going well, and he was enjoying a high frequency of purchases. Unexpectedly, it suddenly became difficult for him to find new coins to add to his set - at least coins that he could afford. He came to realize that several of the coins in the series (which is fairly short to begin with) make astronomical leaps in value at the high end of the grading scale (especially with full-head detail), and abruptly, my friend's opportunities to purchase coins dwindled down to nothing. Basically, there were no coins left that his budget would allow for. To make a long story short, he ended up abandoning the series, selling the coins at a bit of a loss in order to continue to pursue Standing Liberty quarters, but coins without the full-head detail.

 

In another case, a friend decided to put together a set of Indian Head cents. Quite in contrast to the Standing Liberty quarter collector, he decided to pursue the cheapest, basest, lowest-grade and most available coins he could find in order to speed completion. This particular collector did not have a severely limited budget, but he was in a hurry to gather lots of coins in a short amount of time. He was able to zip through the entire set in about one month, with many of the most mediocre coins purchased through internet auctions. Unhappily, upon completion of the set, this friend felt very little satisfaction with what he had accomplished, because - to put the situation honestly - his set would surely have to be considered among the worst, most hideous numismatic eyesores ever assembled. He had some horribly corroded coins, some bent, a couple with holes, many cleaned, and a cornucopia of the most bizarre, unnatural colors ever seen in a single coin album. The 1877 had little gear teeth carved into half the rim! In disgust, he ended up ridding himself of this disaster as quickly as possible, again at a loss, and since then, has refocused on coins that, although low-grade, at least possess decent eye-appeal. It will take him much longer to complete the set (still within his budget), but he will get a lot more pride out of owning the coins.

 

In one final example, I remember a coin collector who started out immediately purchasing high-grade uncirculated Morgan dollars with deep-mirror proof-like (DMPL) surfaces. Again, this was a case where, after purchasing his first dozen or so, the collector realized that even if he were to live two hundred years, his budget would never allow for completion of the set. To collect even a single coin from each year would be impossible (for his budget), as Morgan dollar for some years are practically non-existent, and the extant examples cost many tens of thousands of dollars. Once again, as was the case with the other examples discussed, the collector had to sell off all the Morgans. Interestingly enough, he decided to pursue prooflike Mexican coins, a series that is challenging, yet affordable and achievable, yet produces a set that is every bit as visually satisfying as that of Morgan dollars.

 

The point of these three anecdotes is to illuminate some of the pitfalls that may be encountered when the goal is to complete a set; one can aim either too high or too low, or at too esoteric a quality, and become dissatisfied with the prospects of completion (or incompletion).

 

There is no shame in collecting only what you can afford!

 

In today's aggressively market-driven numismatic world, collectors are constantly being barraged with information advising them only to pursue high-grade coins. Registry programs, population reports, cleverly marketed national auctions, and the pervading attitude that only flashy, high-grade coins are worth owning - all these factors can contribute to the feeling that, if a collection is not comprised of only pristine high-priced coins, then it is not a collection worth pursuing. I must emphasize that this is simply not the case. Remember that all of these facets of the hobby are merely marketing ploys, intended to relieve you of as much of your numismatic funds as possible. The truth is simply that whatever you honestly decide is right for you, honoring that decision leads you to the most satisfying collecting experience. It is true that it is much easier for a dealer or auction house to make bigger profits on high-grade coins with large markups, but obviously, this is not a system designed to help the collector who does not have unlimited financial resources.

 

After deciding what series you would like to focus on (in our example of course, it is a complete set of Buffalo nickels), the next step ought to be to examine your budget, and to determine what range of grades provides a realistic opportunity of completion, yet does not prove to be so easy a task that the collecting process becomes simplistic and boring. So, the objective is to figure out what grade level exists such that the collection in question remains attainable, yet challenging. To elucidate this process, let's analyze some actual retail numbers corresponding to the Buffalo nickel collection.

 

How real coin values affect your collecting decisions

 

Table 1 (attached below) gives realistic retail values for each coin in the series, as we have decided to collect it. It is plainly evident that only the bleakest of numismatic budgets would inhibit a collector from assembling a pleasing set of Buffalo nickels in a sensible amount of time. Even in the lowest reasonable numismatic grade of "Good", Buffalo nickels make an attractive appearance when in original condition (in grades lower than "good", the dates tend to be indistinct, if not unreadable, and therefore the series likely should not be collected in any lower grade), and a complete collection should be obtainable at the cost of about $2,000, as the table shows. This assumes of course that the collector is truly committed to what we have defined as a complete set, including the overdate and the three-legged Buffalo. Additional varieties, such as the doubled-dies and overdates can extend the cost substantially. Again, for our discussion, we will diligently maintain our previous definition of the "complete set".

 

Undoubtedly, there are collectors with financial resources that would not even meet the lowest level of "Good" set by our parameters. In this case, such a collector might well decide that his complete set would in fact have to exclude the two most expensive coins - the overdate and the three-legged coin - in which case the cost of the set is reduced to onlys $600. Thus, as we have discussed before, one parameter which can be altered to mesh with a collector's specific situation would be his definition of what comprises a "complete set". In light of this very low budget, the collector must be honest with himself and his goals, and realize that the reality of the financial situation will override all other considerations.

 

Returning to our discussion, it is inferred that at a monthly numismatic budget of, let's say, $100, the time it will take to assemble a set of coins in "Good" condition (at a total cost of $2000) will be close to two years. In fact, it could well take more than two years, because there are other coins out there in other series that we will want from time to time, and therefore occasional months will pass with the monthly budget relegated to a purchase of something other than a Buffalo nickel. Most collectors are passionate about more than one series! In general though, the time estimate to completion would be some two years, which is by no means a disagreeable prospect.

 

Some collectors will decide that the grade of "Good" is just not going to present enough detail and quality for their preference, and that is certainly a praiseworthy conviction. Should we decide to pursue coins grading "Fine", the cost of this set does not skyrocket out of the realm of reasonable costs. The table shows a total value of about $4600, which means that, maintaining the monthly $100 budget, the endeavor will result in at least four years of numismatic adventure, which would try the patience of many collectors, but by no means would it be unacceptable.

 

Be aware of how cost escalates with grade

 

Unlike the palatable jump in value between "Good" and "Fine", our handy table demonstrates that the total cost for a complete collection of Buffalo nickels jumps immensely in grades of "Extremely Fine" or better. As the table shows, at over $18,000, it costs four times as much to purchase all of these coins as it would for the coins in "Fine", and nearly ten times the cost in grades of just "Good". For the collector who is convinced that Buffalo nickels in any grade below "Extremely Fine" are not worthy of his album, he must be prepared to spend a considerable amount of time finding such coins, and considerable expense in acquiring them! At the monthly budget of $100, it is going to take at least fifteen years to complete this set - enough time to try the patience of all but the most dedicated of Buffalo Nickel collectors. Of course, the return on such patience is very high, as a set of Nickels in EF would be an impressive achievement, but it would be wise to know in advance the time commitment and the financial commitment this set would demand.

 

Finally - and once again limiting our resources to a budgetary allocation of $100 per month - the table shows that the achievement of a complete set of coins in Choice Uncirculated MS-63 (about $100,000) would require the dedication of close to ninety years to accomplish. Ninety years! While such a lifetime of dedication in pursuit of a single set might be commendable indeed, it is obviously a completely unrealistic goal for any rational collector. Yet, isn't it singularly valuable to know in advance - before buying any coins in MS-63 - what the odds are against ever completing this set?

 

As stated, all four of these scenarios are premised on a $100 per month budget, and one way to decrease the time entailed in the pursuit is to increase the monthly budget. But even increasing the budget to $500 per month - a significant monthly investment by today's standards - it would still take nearly twenty years to acquire every example necessary for the complete set in grades of MS-63 (though the Extremely Fine set becomes very feasible at not much over three years of effort). But that kind of budget is reserved for only a small percentage of fortunate collectors who have outstanding financial backing for their hobby.

 

Conclusion

 

It becomes an issue of balancing the amount of time a collector is willing to dedicate to the completion of a set versus the limits of his budgetary allocation. But regardless of how he decides to balance it out, prudence shows that it would be wise on his part to decide early on what grade range, and therefore what price range, will work for him. Certainly, this decision ought to be made before any significant investment is made in coins that may end up being either much too high in grade, or much too low for the final creation.

 

It can be very discouraging to embark upon a collection, only to realize after significant financial investment that the prospect of ever achieving completion of the set are very poor. Likewise, it can be just as discouraging to realize that one has aimed too low, that the collection will be quickly completed, and not provide the challenge that makes coin collecting such an enjoyable pastime. The astute collector will dedicate a little time in advance to determine how much it would cost him to complete the set in various grades, and then focus his purchases in the grade range that suits this determination.

 

However you decide to pursue your coin collection, enjoy your coins.

 

Table 1: Retail Values for Buffalo Nickels, 1913-1938-D

(includes 1918/7-D and 1937-D Three Legged Buffalo

 

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Note: the list of values in this table is based on the author's limited experience as a coin dealer, and is not intended to be used as a formal retail price reference.

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First off, outstanding article, James.

 

Defining what a "complete set" means to a coin collector

 

You touched on some great points here. It often seems that, for example, a registry set's requirements will define a set. Or, more often, the holes to be filled in a specific album. As a result, the market is often set because of these inclusions.

 

A listing in the Redbook will create automatic demand with a subsequent price spike. Like the WI extra leaf state quarter, for example.

 

I personally prefer the type collection as defined by the Dansco 7070. It gives a broad spectrum of type examples of US coinage but yet bypasses many types which are, in my opinion, a little overboard, i.e. 3 types of 3CS's, 1874 arrows Seated Liberty coinage, etc. Yet, the Dansco 7070 is still a challenge which provides a pleasing collection when care is taken to purchase pleasing examples to complete it. It also eliminates the very costly early Bust/Flowing Hair types which makes its completion much more feasible for one on a limited budget.

 

Another personal decision in a set's completion is to collect raw or certified. For my collection of modern commemorative silver dollars, I choose to collect them raw in a Danco album. Not only do I prefer to view the collection together as a whole but I see no reason to spend hundreds and even thousands of dollars extra for a coin that is minted near perfect anyway.

 

Rare and high dollared coins, on the contrary, should be slabbed, IMO, for security and for protection.

 

There is no shame in collecting only what you can afford!

 

Exactly. However, as you alluded to, care should be taken when selecting an example. Always try to avoid coins which have problems. They will always be there and will be distracting not only to you but to any subsequent owner. Furthermore, one of the greatest enjoyments in collecting coins is the hunt. Sure, it is satisfying to have a complete collection on something but w/o the thrill of the pursuit, it is not as meaningful.

 

 

 

The most important thing is to enjoy what you are doing. I bought a few rolls of cull Buffalo nickels and was using Nic-a-Date to put together sets. I haven't finished it yet but it was/is still fun to do at a relatively low cost.

I really love the Buffalo series but feel that, due to its popularity, it is way overvalued. So, this gives me a chance to collect them at a modest price.

 

 

The astute collector will dedicate a little time in advance to determine how much it would cost him to complete the set in various grades, and then focus his purchases in the grade range that suits this determination.

 

This is a perfect conclusion which I wholely endorse!

 

*****

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James----excellent post! Sometimes---me included----collectors need to be told things in the simplist terms. Your post does that very well. One might add that the availability of the coins [in certain grades] also plays a role in how long it might take to complete the set. While coins may be quite easy in a good or very good grade, they may be very difficult to locate in an extra fine or unc grade. Then there is the issue of the word PATIENCE. We all must learn to wait while the sun shines on occasion. One might sit for months before your coin appears for sale. If you are the nervous type, it requires you to learn a new virtue---patience. Bob [supertooth]

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Great post, James and timely, as this forum seems to have attracted a number of beginning collectors recently.

 

A must read.

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Wonderful article, ESPECIALLY for us new (or re-newed) folks. I'm not sure I would have "listened" a couple months ago but, after wasting (miss-guiding) some funds I'm ready to learn and use an ORGANIZED approach. I thought, and have persued, getting a certified set (1 of each grade not expensive ones) of Morgans MS-60 - MS-67 would give me a benchmark to compare other coins. And, yes, I could compare other Morgans and grade them 'close' but, could not afford many. I won't have to sell what I collected but, now your article has given me a "HOW-TO" on figuring out what to collect. I have a pretty good Rosevelt and Lincoln books that I put togather in the 60's but, I wanted to go older. Now I'm going to study pricing and eye appeal (to me) and select what I can afford over the next few years.

 

Thank you very much for the article now that I'm willing to listen.

 

Regis

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Great post that gives a collector a lot to think 893scratchchin-thumb.gif about. 893applaud-thumb.gif893applaud-thumb.gif

 

I've come to the conclusion that each collector is better off defining for himself what constitutes a great collection. Some coins will always be out of my price range and that does not really upset me since there will always be things I will never be able to afford or want for that matter. Yet, there are so many great original coins that have character, history and originality to them which can be gathered as a type set or a short collection of a particular series. These need not cost one's life savings but can be found with a perseverence, discretion and a little luck.

 

At a recent show I saw some MS65's Franklin's with great toning. Two of them are NGC star coins. The price was good and the dealer has been great to work with previously so I purchased them. Imagine my surprise a couple of week's later when I discovered from the NGC pop reports that there was only one star coin in MS65 and only in MS66 for that particular year (1955)! Of course, that may not last as new coins are submitted or others are upgraded, but I think it illustrates what can be done without spending an arm and a leg for coins to enhance one's collection. Buying nice looking coins that fill my parameters makes the hobby worthwhile for me. I enjoy my collection. yay.gif Isn't that what collecting should be about?

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Great article, James. I especially liked this (my emphasis added):

 

In today's aggressively market-driven numismatic world, collectors are constantly being barraged with information advising them only to pursue high-grade coins. Registry programs, population reports, cleverly marketed national auctions, and the pervading attitude that only flashy, high-grade coins are worth owning - all these factors can contribute to the feeling that, if a collection is not comprised of only pristine high-priced coins, then it is not a collection worth pursuing. I must emphasize that this is simply not the case. Remember that all of these facets of the hobby are merely marketing ploys, intended to relieve you of as much of your numismatic funds as possible. The truth is simply that whatever you honestly decide is right for you, honoring that decision leads you to the most satisfying collecting experience.

 

To the point of collecting "the best" set: Well-matched sets of nearly any grade that have been assembled with care and attention paid to the appeal of each coin, and each coin in relation to the others, are very rare. These sets LEAP out with wonderful appeal to any onlooker. The only difference between a superb set of VF buffalo nickels and a superb gem set is the amount of money spent putting it together. Both can take a great deal of time to assemble, particularly if a collector is careful about the relationship of one coin to the next.

 

When I look through the registries, I rarely think that the collection that's top in a category is the best set assembled. Likewise, when I look at album collections that are a hodge-podge of coins with all effects of appearance and conditions, I am rarely impressed with their level of completion. We've been brainwashed by the inane message of collecting the highest grades without the concomitant devotion to quality and relationship to other matters of personal appeal or a basic understanding of what we're collecting. This is the disservice of urgency, which has too many villians to mention.

 

Hoot

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Great post! The "average coin collector" is completely left out in the cold by registry-mania, and can use support like this.

 

Another strike against collecting super high grade coins (especially super high grade moderns): Currently the prices of these are supported by people with deep pockets. Those people could decide some day that the stock market offers a better return. The high end coin prices could collapse as a result.

 

Buying circulated coins that are pleasing to you and your pocketbook also protects you against the possible wild fluctuations in the prices of high end coins.

 

Finally, when you collect super high grade coins you are most likely depending on a TPG to establish the grade of the coin (particularly true for registry sets, where some people buy plastic, not coins). Disagreements about whether the TPG is right or not can cause differences of thousands of dollars in the prices of coins. Circulated coins are relatively immune to squabbling over the grade.

 

Thanks for a great post supportive of the majority of collectors!

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Great Post. Planning and setting goals prior to jumping in is always great advice. Alot of times "planning guidance" centers around grading and numismatic knowledge and all too often important factors like budget and realistic set completion expectations are left out.

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[

There is no shame in collecting only what you can afford!

 

In today's aggressively market-driven numismatic world, collectors are constantly being barraged with information advising them only to pursue high-grade coins. Registry programs, population reports, cleverly marketed national auctions, and the pervading attitude that only flashy, high-grade coins are worth owning - all these factors can contribute to the feeling that, if a collection is not comprised of only pristine high-priced coins, then it is not a collection worth pursuing. I must emphasize that this is simply not the case. Remember that all of these facets of the hobby are merely marketing ploys, intended to relieve you of as much of your numismatic funds as possible. The truth is simply that whatever you honestly decide is right for you, honoring that decision leads you to the most satisfying collecting experience. .

 

Great statement and worthy of some more recognition.

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James -- good thoughts well expressed. Thanks.

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Great article, James. I tend to be an accumulator and have ended up with partial sets of coins that I never was able to complete because of having too many sets going at once, or, having sets that were too ambitious for my budget.

 

Also, there is a problem with collecting series of coins that have little popular collecting interest. Two series of these coins are (IMHO) gold dollars and Trimes. I started a Trime set several years ago and quickly found out three hard facts about this series. One, they are hard to find in MS condition, especially later Type III issues. Two, the better dates are quite expensive in MS63/64. Plus finally, the series has little interest and prices have not changed much in several years.

 

In the area of registry set building, I have started building some Signature Sets. Even though you do not get any points for these sets, you can design your own set theme and tailor the set size and scope to your collecting style and budget. I am sure that this is what NGC intended when they added these sets to the registry and I have had some fun with building a few Signature Sets already.

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Fantastic post and truly a treat to have available as a pdf! thumbsup2.gif

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