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  1. Doesn't really matter. My 500-year gold medal and pin have my regular membership number as assigned when I joined - of course it's in Roman numerals. My membership care is signed by James I.
  2. Sorry to disappoint - common coin in common condition.
  3. What you, the new owner, thinks is more important.
  4. YouTube and similar unvetted sites are your numismatic enemy. Most coin videos are either commercial touts, error-filled confusion, or gross exaggerations.
  5. That's right. The word "rusty" was being applied to discolored/tarnished coins retrieved from moldy and rotting cotton duck bags. There was little in Mint vaults that would induce extensive rust deposits on coin -- no steel cans of dollars, etc. There was plenty of sulfur from the cloth, and coal fires, however.
  6. When a problem involves multiple people or organizations, the best way to begin a solution includes identifying those affected, understand how they are affected, and ask each group how they might propose a solution. It is common for this type of evolutionary problem solving to produce unexpected results, so the organizers have to be open to all suggestions and alternatives. Decisions are built on communication of ideas and negotiation of immediate and long-term solutions. The worst approach is usually a single-minded dictate. In US and European cultures that creates an immediate negative emotion that hampers finding the best solution. Consider how this could be applied to grading coins, or other aspects of numismatics.
  7. There was debris between the reverse die and the planchet when the coin was struck.
  8. Polished and damaged. No numismatic value; keep it for its sentimental value.
  9. It doesn't matter who takes the photos - if it's through a plastic slab it will be an inferior image. (Plastic distorts images and the slab prevents optimum lighting angles. Compare any of the slabbed DE photos with the PR-58 (aka PR-63) in another thread. The half was tilted are various angles, much as one would to manually examine a coin, and thus revealed obvious wear on high points - hence its false grade.)
  10. True --- but the people making the most money are Greedy Americans who buy from the counterfeiters, then resell to the clueless. If there were no market, the counterfeiters would go back to making toothpaste out of plaster of Paris. [Chinese Communist Capitalism is entirely consistent with ancient government and social philosophy. Strong government roles, with limited interference with free trade, so long as the government gets a cut and has final control. You are seeing that in operation now as the Communist Party cracks down of excess speculation, but does little to protect its citizens from consumer fraud and misrepresentation. No drug - not even aspirin - can be trusted. The better-off buy from import sources, never Chinese.]
  11. "Patina" was commonly applied to copper coins with natural oxidation. Then greedy sellers began calling anything "patina" and eventually killed use of a perfectly good word. I recall "verdigris" still being applied to green/aqua colored corrosion on copper and brass coins - especially ancients. It is usually a mixture of sulfur and oxygen compounds with copper and low quality zinc.Sometimes called "bronze disease," I think.
  12. There is no standard for the mirror depth of proof or proof-like coins. Thus, neither has any provable meaning.
  13. 1856 FE cents exist as circulation and proof (or master) coins. The Treasury pushed hard for the small cent and so they issued a lot of these. Like 1909-S VDB cents, and 1893-S dollars, they are readily available and greatly over priced compared to rarity.
  14. A century ago small city and local newspapers depended on large city papers for news and routinely republished anything exciting or that would fill an empty space. (Usually short human interest articles called "fillers.") News organizations are far more accurate and careful than a century ago. You can trust the major newspapers to present the best they can, and editorial comments/opinion is kept separate. Even our local Fox station has excellent local coverage and truthful national materials. All new organizations have certain viewpoints in editorial or "commentator" shows, and it's unfortunate that so many people can't separate obvious lies of truth. Naturally, there are always errors - responsible media admits to these and makes corrections.
  15. That's a famous "upside down Indian" error. Sell it quick, before someone rotates it!