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Early American – Pre-Declaration (1616-1775)
When the first Europeans began to settle in America during the 1500s, there was little use for coins. Where would you spend them in a complete wilderness? Coins meant nothing to the native people, yet the Europeans found that they needed to trade with them in order to survive, particularly during winter. The colonists soon adopted the native practice of exchanging wampum (small clamshells fashioned into beads) for food, animal skins and other necessities. Another highly prized commodity, especially in Europe, was a plant native to America called tobacco. Both items were so commonly exchanged that the English colonies of the Atlantic coast actually passed laws regulating their values by weight or by count.
The simple economy of the early colonists eventually gave way to a society that resembled the cities and towns they'd left behind in Europe. With craftsmen and merchants establishing shops in villages up and down the Atlantic coast, the need for a more sophisticated medium of exchange demanded that coins be made available.
Most of the American colonies were ruled by England, and their governments were run in accordance with charters granted by England's king. While a few of these charters permitted the colonial governments to manufacture coins, most did not. The first English colony to challenge this prohibition was Massachusetts Bay. In 1652 the colony of Massachusetts Bay established a mint in Boston.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony's mint at Boston was run by John Hull, who was assisted by Robert Saunderson. Its output consisted mostly of silver shillings, coins valued at twelve pence. The Massachusetts Mint also produced smaller silver coins valued at six pence, three pence and two pence. Except for the twopence pieces, which were dated 1662, all of the coins minted at Boston carried the date 1652. Although a popular myth holds that the coins were dated 1652 to deceive the monarch into believing that the colony had ceased minting coins after he ascended to the throne, in reality the date almost certainly refers to the year that the Massachusetts Bay General Court authorized their production.
The mint’s first silver shillings bore simply the letters NE (for New England) on the obverse and the values XII (12 in Roman numerals), VI (6) or III (3) on the reverse. Easily counterfeited or clipped, these coins were quickly replaced by ones featuring a tree on their obverse. Three styles of trees were used over the thirty years of production: a willow (1652-60), an oak (1660-67) and, most familiar of all, a pine (1667-82).
In Maryland, Cecil Calvert contracted with England's Royal Mint to produce silver coins valued respectively at one shilling, six pence and four pence. These carried no date, but they were made around 1659, during the Commonwealth period when England had no king and was ruled by Parliament. The number minted is unknown, and they evidently circulated in the Maryland Colony for just a few years. All are rare and highly sought by collectors today.
Connecticut had an advantage over the other colonies because it possessed copper mines. Outside the town of Granby, Dr. Samuel Higley created his own mint from scratch. He smelted the raw ore himself and made his own dies for the minting of copper three pence coins dated either 1737 or 1739. The principal devices were a stag seen in profile on the obverse and either three hammers or a single axe on the reverse. Higley's coins proved quite successful locally, though by English standards they were underweight. When found today, these very rare coins are almost always well worn, and this proves that they circulated for many years.
In New Jersey, the colonists used coins imported from Ireland during the 1680s. These copper pieces were made a legal tender by the General Assembly in May of 1682. They came in two sizes, the larger ones valued at one-half penny and the smaller coins at a farthing, or one-quarter penny. One side of these coins shows a seated figure of a king playing a harp (symbolic of Ireland), and the other side shows Saint Patrick. These coppers are some of the more available coins from the American colonial period.
Among the rarest and most obscure colonial pieces are the brass and pewter tokens issued by Francis Lovelace, governor of New York from 1668 to 1673. The New Yorke token is undated but is believed to date from this period. Its obverse shows Cupid chasing after Psyche, who wears butterfly wings. The reverse features the Lovelace Family arms, which is dominated by an eagle. Probably intended to pass as farthings, these extremely rare tokens are believed by some to have been made in Bristol, England.
In 1688, Richard Holt received a royal patent to manufacture tokens for use in the American colonies. Made of tin, these tokens were valued at 1/24 real. (The real was a Spanish unit of value, and the coins of Spain's American colonies were then widely used throughout the New World.) The obverse shows England's King Charles II astride his horse, while the reverse displays the armorial shields of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales linked by a chain. Very little is known of these rare pieces, such as where and for how long they actually circulated.
Another individual who received royal permission to make coins for Ireland and for the American colonies was William Wood. Both issues of his copper coins, which are dated 1722, 1723 and 1724, show a portrait of King George I on their common obverse. The American coins feature an English rose on their reverse, while the Irish pieces display a seated figure of the goddess Hibernia (Latin for Ireland) seated beside a harp. Though officially valued at two pence, one penny and one-half penny, respectively, Wood's coins were very underweight and were largely rejected by the Irish. As a result, the Irish issues were also shipped to America, since the American colonists had too few coins to complain about their quality. Even so, they proved to be just as unpopular here as they had been in Ireland.
Another series of Irish coins that found their way to the American colonies were the Voce Populi coppers, so called because of their obverse legend, which in Latin means “By the voice of the people.” Dated 1760, several varieties of farthings and halfpennies are known. These were created by a Mr. Roche of Dublin. Their obverse features a laureate bust of King George II, while the reverse design is a seated figure of Hibernia with a harp. Exactly where and when these circulated in America is uncertain, but they are highly collectable.
Tokens honoring Sir William Pitt, who defended the American colonists against the unpopular Stamp Act of 1765, were made in both farthing and halfpenny sizes bearing the date 1766. A bust of Sir William appears on the obverse, while the reverse features a merchant ship under full sale, which is identified as AMERICA. The Pitt Tokens are quite collectable and serve as important historic relics.
Of all England's American colonies, Virginia came closest to realizing a useful coinage from the Mother Country, but it simply came too late. In 1773, thousands of copper halfpennies were minted in London for shipment to Virginia. These attractive coins carry the portrait of King George III on their obverse and the royal arms of Great Britain on their reverse. Thanks in large part to the discovery of a hoard of uncirculated specimens, Virginia halfpennies are readily available in Mint State grades. The Virginia halfpennies are among the most common colonial era coins, and they are a perennial favorite with American collectors.
With the exception some of the types described above, there are few uniquely American coins from the colonial era. It may be seen from these mostly unsuccessful attempts at coinage that the needs of the American colonists were not being met. This attitude of disregard on the part of England toward its countrymen overseas would eventually lead to rebellion and American independence.
In 1776 the Continental Congress authorized the silver dollar-sized Continental Currency. Engraved by Elisha Gallaudet, the Continental Currency pieces were struck primarily in pewter, but a handful of brass and silver examples were also minted. These important pieces were the first coins authorized by the nascent United States and are highly desirable among collectors today. Numerous copies and counterfeits have been also been made.
In the initial post-Declaration enthusiasm, several of the new states made plans for a copper coinage of their own. One state that actually went through with this idea was New Hampshire. In March, its House of Representatives appointed a committee to look into the practicality of minting copper coins. The committee recommended that William Moulton be assigned the task of coining 100 pounds of copper into pieces valued at 108 to the Spanish Milled Dollar. These fascinating coins, of which fewer than ten are known today, display on one side a tree and the inscription AMERICAN LIBERTY. The other side features simply a harp. Oddly, however, there is no mention anywhere on these coins that they were issued by New Hampshire!
In that same year of 1776, Massachusetts produced an attractive copper piece of which but a single specimen is known today. Its obverse displays a pine tree, the symbol of a Cambridge, Massachusetts patriotic society called the Sons of Liberty. On the reverse is the familiar seated figure of Britannia which, while symbolic of the hated Britain, was used here because it was typical of the copper coins in circulation and would ease acceptance. The great rarity of this historic penny suggests that it was only a pattern. Who prepared the dies and struck this issue remains unknown to this day.
Aside from these two examples, the grand plans of the individual states to produce their own coinage ultimately came to nothing until after the war's end. The economic uncertainty that typically accompanies wartime led to the hoarding of all coins, and there was simply no point in making new ones.
The War of Independence was concluded by treaty in 1783. At that time, Americans still used the English reckoning of pounds, shillings and pence. This awkward division of the pound into 240 pence dated from ancient times. The first to propose a decimal system for American coinage was Gouverneur Morris, the assistant superintendent of finance. In 1782, he came up with an elaborate system based on a unit of value called, simply, the unit. There would be silver coins valued at 100 units and 1000 units, as well as a gold coin of 10,000 units. Robert Morris (who was not related to Gouverneur) was the superintendent of finance, and he was so impressed by his assistant's plan that he actually commissioned engraver Benjamin Dudley to establish a mint. Only a few patterns were struck, however, since America simply lacked an adequate supply of silver and gold.
Not one to give up, Gouverneur Morris decided to mint copper coins instead, using the same design but without a stated value. Prominent on the obverse of each piece is the All-Seeing-Eye of God, surrounded by rays and stars, while the reverse features a simple wreath enclosing the letters US. These coins were made in England by a private mint run by the Wyon Family. More than a million of these coppers were struck and shipped to America, where they were usually valued at one-half penny. The Nova Constellatio pieces were the first circulating coins to bear American imagery and inscriptions. They're also common enough that any collector can own one.
In 1783 John Chalmers, an Annapolis, Maryland, silversmith, privately issued silver shillings, sixpence, and threepence. The shillings, with the exception of the extremely rare "ring shillings," show two birds fighting for a worm below a hedge and snake. On the sixpence, the intials TS at opposite ends of a cross identify the engraver as Thomas Sparrow, another local silversmith. The tiny threepence exhibits a branch encircled by a wreath. All three denominations share a clasped hand motif. Although Chalmers pieces are scarce, a circulated example can be acquired without much difficulty. Another Maryland silversmith, Standish Barry of Baltimore, would strike a small number of silver threepence in 1790.
The Articles of Confederation, which loosely governed the thirteen states from 1778 until 1789, permitted each state to mint its own coins. Before any of the United States undertook such a coinage, Vermont, then an independent republic, beat them to it. Like most of the copper coins, those of Vermont were produced by private companies under contract to the government. In 1785, Reuben Harmon, Jr., of Rupert, Vermont was given an exclusive franchise to mint coppers. The design of these coins features a view of the sun rising over a mountaintop, which is covered in pine trees. Below this are a plow and the date. The reverse of these coins is similar to that of the Constellatio Nova coppers.
After just a year, the Vermont coppers were redesigned to resemble the worn British halfpence which formed the majority of copper coins in circulation. The new issue featured a profile bust of a man wearing leather mail, similar to the familiar portrait of King George III. The reverse of each coin showed the seated goddess Britannia. While these revised coppers look like British coins, at least their mottoes are American.
In this form, Vermont coppers were made as late as 1789, though the later issues were counterfeits made at a site called Machin's Mills near Newburgh, New York. Thomas Machin and his partners made a specialty of producing fakes of whatever copper coins were being most widely accepted at the time. Since the popularity of each issue varied from one year to the next, he even overstruck the designs of one coin type on existing coins of another type to take advantage of this shifting favor!
Among the issues that Thomas Machin counterfeited were the copper coins of New Jersey and Connecticut. The State of New Jersey passed a bill on June 1, 1786 that called for the minting of copper coins to a total of three million pieces. The chief proponent of this plan was General Matthius Ogden. The new coins were to be valued at fifteen pieces per New Jersey shilling (each state then regulated the value of money within its borders). The men selected to perform this coining were Thomas Goadsby, Walter Mould and Albion Cox. The design of the New Jersey coppers features a horse's head with a plow beneath it on the obverse, and the date appears beneath the plow on most examples. On the back of each coin is a shield with thirteen stripes.
Connecticut also had a coinage of its own during this same time period. The Company for Coining Coppers was formed by four individuals who obtained a franchise in 1785. Joseph Hopkins and Samuel Bishop were members of the State Assembly, and their partners were John Goodrich and James Hillhouse. These coins were struck from 1785 to 1789 and were similar in appearance to the second issue of Vermont coppers. More than 340 varieties are known, and some collectors have made a specialty of this series. For most, however, just a single coin will do. Fortunately, Connecticut coppers are perhaps the most common of the state coins, and examples may be obtained at a very reasonable price.
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts elected to create its own state-run mint. It did this on October 17, 1786, appointing Boston goldsmith Joshua Wetherle as the mintmaster. The coins which resulted from this operation are some of the best made and most attractive of the early American pieces. The obverse of each coin displays the standing, male figure of a Native American, holding a bow in his right hand and an arrow in his left. The reverse of these coins features an eagle in a heraldic pose, with a shield upon its breast. One particularly novel feature of the Massachusetts coins is that they come in two distinct sizes, each having a stated value. On the shield appears either CENT or, for the smaller coins, HALF CENT.
The State of New York was officially opposed to issuing coppers. When the coining petition of Ephraim Brasher and John Bailey failed to move the legislature, Bailey proceeded to manufacture copper coins of his own which displayed a New York theme. They are known as the Nova Eborac (Latin for New York) coppers. Though rarer than the other state issues, these privately made pieces were evidently produced in enough numbers to remain collectable today.
In fact, there were a number of unofficial or privately made issues produced to meet the general demand for copper coins of halfpenny size. Most of these pieces were struck in relatively small numbers and are rare today. They exhibit a variety of themes, many depicting portraits of George Washington that range from the highly accurate to the completely ridiculous. Other copper halfpence often included in American collections are actually English merchant tokens which have vaguely American themes.
Perhaps the most historically significant of the pre-federal United States coins are the Fugio Cents, which take their name from the Latin word fugio (I fly) appearing on their obverse. Though privately manufactured by James Jarvis of New Haven, Connecticut and his partners, the Fugio Cents were commissioned by the infant United States government on April 21, 1787. On the obverse of each cent appears a sundial, as well as the sun itself. On the reverse are thirteen interlocking rings, each of which bears the name of one of the colonies. At the center are the words AMERICAN CONGRESS and WE ARE ONE. This expresses the unity that the American colonies needed to protect their independence. The message was particularly important, since most Americans were loyal to their own state, but they didn't initially feel much connection to the nation as a whole.
The Brasher Doubloon
The Brasher doubloons have intrigued numismatists for generations, though the exact story behind their creation remains a mystery. The first example turned up in a deposit of foreign gold pieces made to the Philadelphia Mint in 1838. The depositor simply wished to have his metal restruck into federal coins or ingots, and it was the sharp eye of Chief Coiner Adam Eckfeldt that spotted the significance of the hitherto unknown gold piece. For some years, Eckfeldt had taken it upon himself to set aside curious specimens which came into the Mint for recoining, paying for them from his own pocket. To this assemblage he added proof specimens of the current year's federal coinage, and these items formed the nucleus of the U. S. Mint's own coin collection, since relocated to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.
The first mention of the Mint Collection's specimen appeared in 1846, when the Mint's unofficial historian and numismatist, W. E. DuBois, described it as "a very remarkable gold coin, equal in value to a doubloon, coined at New York in 1787." When published in 1858, J. H. Hickcox's seminal book An Historical Account of American Coinage included a written description of this coin's distinctive design. An even more influential and widely disseminated work was Professor Montroville W. Dickeson's The American Numismatic Manual, and it too made reference to this curious rarity, tentatively labeling it a pattern. This coin was finally illustrated in Sylvester S. Crosby's classic The Early Coins of America, which remains today the primary source of information about Colonial and Confederation coinage.
There’s no common agreement on which side of the Brasher doubloon is the obverse and which is the reverse. Though the eye is drawn toward the side bearing the distinctive ‘EB’ hallmark, set within an oval cartouche, most scholars have classified the landscape design as this coin’s obverse. Featured is a scene depicting the rising sun as it just clears the peak of a mountain. This is framed within a circle of small dots, while the name BRASHER appears below the landscape. Inscribed around the periphery are the legends NOVA EBORAC, COLUMBIA and EXCELSIOR, these separated by quatrefoils.
The reverse of this splendid coin is quite similar to that of the “EXCELSIOR” coppers of 1787, engraved by John Bailey, and it’s possible that Bailey may have participated in executing Brasher’s dies. The reverse is dominated by a heraldic eagle facing to the viewer’s left and bearing an American shield on its breast. In its right talons it grasps the olive branch of peace, in its left the arrows of war. A constellation of 13 five-point stars is arranged about the eagle’s head. A closed wreath encircles the eagle, and around the periphery is the legend E PLURIBUS UNUM, separated with six-point stars. Below is the date 1787, set apart from the legend by quatrefoils.
Collectors eagerly anticipated their first opportunity to bid on a specimen of the Brasher doubloon in 1873, when one was cataloged by W. H. Strobridge as part of the George F. Seavey Collection. To their chagrin, the Seavey Collection was purchased en bloc by Boston bean tycoon Lorin G. Parmelee, and the public sale never occurred. The publicity it generated, however, only served to further whet the appetites of numismatists for this prime rarity.
Only four examples were then known, of which one was a unique specimen with Brasher’s EB hallmark stamped into the eagle’s breast. Its existence within the enormous collection of Charles Bushnell was revealed to the numismatic fraternity in 1864. To this important coin went the honor of being the first Brasher doubloon actually sold at public auction. The year was 1882, and the prize of securing the Bushnell Collection for auction had gone to the young upstart partnership of Philadelphia brothers Henry and Samuel Chapman. The unique Bushnell specimen realized the then very impressive sum of $505. Its purchaser was the prominent New York dealer Edouard Frossard, who quickly placed the doubloon with one of the greatest collectors of that or any time, T. Harrison Garrett of Baltimore.
Garrett's enjoyment of his treasure was brief, however, as he perished in a boating accident on Chesapeake Bay in 1888. His collection of coins remained at his family's home, Evergreen House, and it passed to his son Robert. More than 30 years later, Robert, who had added only a few recent pieces to the collection, traded his coins to brother John Work Garrett in exchange for artworks, which were more to his liking. John Work, on the other hand, possessed a deep passion for numismatics, and he filled countless gaps in the family coin collection, making it one of the greatest ever assembled.
Following the death of John Work Garrett in 1942 and that of his wife some years later, the immense Garrett Collection of coins was willed to the Johns Hopkins University, along with Evergreen House in which to store the coins, books and other valuables it contained. As the years passed, the growing value of the coin collection made it an insurance liability, and it was removed from public display during the 1970s. In 1976, a portion was sold at auction, while the core of the collection remained inside a vault. Shortly thereafter, the University determined that having a valuable coin collection did not contribute to its primary mission, and the decision was made to sell the remaining items.
A monumental, four-part sale was staged at the height of the coin market in 1979-81, and Sale 1 witnessed the offering of the finest known example of the “EB on wing” variety. Sale 4 was even more memorable, for it provided what was only the second opportunity since 1787 for collectors to bid on the unique "EB on breast" variety of the Brasher doubloon.
In addition to their great rarity, a contributing factor in the allure of the Brasher doubloons is the mystery surrounding their creation. No one disputes that they were the work of prominent New York City gold and silversmith Ephraim Brasher, whose surname appears on the coins, but the question of exactly why they were produced has generated much speculation over the years. Brasher (pronounced BRAYzher) is known to have submitted a petition to produce copper coins to the New York State Assembly in 1787, possibly in partnership with John Bailey. One theory holds that the dies used to coin the gold doubloons were actually engraved for this copper coinage and that Brasher struck off a few pieces in gold to impress the state legislators with the quality of his work. Indeed, one side of his coin bears mottos relating to New York: NOVA EBORAC is the Latin name for this state, while EXCELSIOR is New York's own motto, translated as either "more excellent" or, as used in the state's literature, "ever upward." At this time, Brasher's business address was 77 Queen Street in the Wall Street area of New York City, and it may be presumed that his doubloons were produced at that location.
The term "doubloon" does not appear on the coins themselves, which carry no stated value. It was applied to them by Mint officer W. E. DuBois solely on the basis of their size and weight, which corresponds closely to that of Spain's eight escudos gold piece, commonly known as a doubloon. The lack of a stated value is of no significance, as contemporary English gold coins and the early United States gold coins were similarly unmarked and circulated on the basis of their intrinsic value. Whether the Brasher coins actually circulated is uncertain, though most show some degree of wear. If the coins were produced as souvenir or presentation pieces, they may have obtained their wear through use as pocket pieces or from unskilled cleaning.
The historic value of the Brasher doubloons lies in Brasher's prominence as an assayer during the years preceding the establishment of the United States Mint. Held in high esteem for both his skill and integrity, Ephraim Brasher was frequently called upon to perform assays on the various gold coins then current in the infant nation. These consisted of a motley mix of European and Latin American issues whose sole value rested in their weight and fineness, which Brasher was asked to guarantee by affixing his EB hallmark. Also contributing to his importance as a figure during the Confederational period were his close personal ties to George Washington. The two were in fact next door neighbors at the time the Brasher gold pieces were made. Ephraim Brasher was residing at No. 1 Cherry Street in lower Manhattan when Washington relocated to No. 3 Cherry Street. Brasher actually furnished silverware for the future president on more than one occasion, and Washington even owned two tea trays bearing the prestigious EB hallmark.
Coins in Category
c.1616 LARGE STAR SOMMER ISLANDS 2P MS
c.1616 SMALL STAR SOMMER ISLANDS 2P MS
c.1616 SOMMER ISLANDS 3P MS
c.1616 SM PORTHOLES SOMMER ISLANDS 6P MS
c.1616 LG PORTHOLES SOMMER ISLANDS 6P MS
c.1616 SMALL SAIL SOMMER ISLANDS 1S MS
c.1616 LARGE SAIL SOMMER ISLANDS 1S MS
(1652) 'NE' MASSACHUSETTS 6P MS
(1652) 'NE' MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 WILLOW TREE MASSACHUSETTS 6P MS
1652 WILLOW TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1662 SMALL 2 OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 2P MS
1662 LARGE 2 OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 2P MS
1652 NO 'IN' OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 3P MS
1652 'IN' OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 3P MS
1652 'IN'REV OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 6P MS
1652 'IN'OBV OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 6P MS
1652'IN'LEFT OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652'IN'BOT OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 'GHOST' OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 'ANDO' OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 SPINY OAK TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 PELLETS PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 3P MS
1652 NO PELS PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 3P MS
1652 PELLETS PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 6P MS
1652 NO PELS PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 6P MS
1652 PELLETS PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 NO PELS PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 NO 'H' PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 'N' REV PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 'NE'MON PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
1652 SMALL PINE TREE MASSACHUSETTS 1S MS
c.1659 LORD BALTIMORE MARYLAND 1P MS
c.1659 LORD BALTIMORE MARYLAND 4P MS
c.1659 LORD BALTIMORE MARYLAND 6P MS
c.1659 LORD BALTIMORE MARYLAND 1S MS
c.1670 ST.PATRICK NEW JERSEY 1/4P MS
c.1670 HALO ST.PATRICK NEW JERSEY 1/4P MS
c.1670SILVER ST.PATRICK NEW JERSEY 1/4P MS
c.1670 ST.PATRICK NEW JERSEY 1/2P MS
c.1688 AMERICAN PLANTATIONS 1/24R MS
c.1688 'HB' AMERICAN PLANTATIONS 1/24R MS
c.1688 SIDEWAYS 4 AMERICAN PLANTATIONS 1/24R MS
c.1688 ARMS TRANSPOSED AMERICAN PLANTATIONS 1/24R MS
c.1828 RESTRIKE AMERICAN PLANTATIONS 1/24R MS
1722 'VTILE DVLCI' ROSA AMERICANA 1/2P MS
1722 'D.G.' ROSA AMERICANA 1/2P MS
1722 'DEI GRATIA' ROSA AMERICANA 1/2P MS
1723 NO CROWN ROSA AMERICANA 1/2P MS
1723 WITH CROWN ROSA AMERICANA 1/2P MS
1722 'VTILE DVLCI' ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
1722 'UTILE DULCI' ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
1723 ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
c.1722 WITH RIBBON ROSA AMERICANA 2P MS
1722 WITH PERIOD ROSA AMERICANA 2P MS
1722 NO PERIOD ROSA AMERICANA 2P MS
1723 ROSA AMERICANA 2P MS
1722 HIBERNIA 1/4P MS
1723 'D:G:' HIBERNIA 1/4P MS
1723 'DEI GRATIA' HIBERNIA 1/4P MS
1723 SILVER HIBERNIA 1/4P MS
1724 HIBERNIA 1/4P MS
1722 WITH ROCKS HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1722 HARP LEFT HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1722 HARP RIGHT HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1723 HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1723/2 HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1723 SILVER HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1724 HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1773 WITH PERIOD VIRGINIA 1/2P MS
1773 NO PERIOD VIRGINIA 1/2P MS
c.1694 THICK ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE LONDON TOKEN MS
c.1694 THIN ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE LONDON TOKEN MS
c.1694 DIAG ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE LONDON TOKEN MS
c.1694 BRASS ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE LONDON TOKEN MS
1694 'TERS' ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE CAROLINA TOKEN MS
1694 O/E ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE CAROLINA TOKEN MS
1694 ELEPHANT GOD PRESERVE NEW ENGLAND TOKEN MS
c.1670 BRASS NEW YORKE IN AMERICA 1/4P MS
1737 HIGLEY 3 HAMMERS 'CONNECTICVT' 3P MS
1737 HIGLEY 3 HAMMERS 'VALVE OF THREE PENCE' 3P MS
1737 HIGLEY 3 HAMMERS 'VALVE ME AS YOU PLEASE' 3P MS
1737 HIGLEY 3 HAMMERS 'VALUE ME AS YOU PLEASE' 3P MS
(1737)HIGLEY BROAD AXE 'VALUE ME AS YOU PLEASE' 3P MS
(1737)HIGLEY BROAD AXE 'THE WHEELE GOES ROUND' 3P MS
1739 HIGLEY BROAD AXE 'VALUE ME AS YOU PLEASE' 3P MS
1760 LARGE LETTERS HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/4P MS
1760 NO 'P' HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/2P MS
1760 NO 'P' 'VOOE' HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/2P MS
1760 NO 'P' '1700' HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/2P MS
1760 'P' IN FRONT HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/2P MS
1760 'P' BELOW HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/2P MS
1766 WILLIAM PITT 1/4P MS
1766 WILLIAM PITT 1/2P MS
1766 WILLIAM PITT SILVERED 1/2P MS
(1652) 'NE' MASSACHUSETTS 3P MS
(1724) 'SINE SPINA' ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
c.1694 SWORD RT ELEPHNT GOD PRESERVE LONDON TOKEN MS
c.1694 ELEPHANT LON DON TOKEN MS
c.1670 NO'C' ST.PATRICK NEW JERSEY 1/4P MS
c.1722 NO RIBBON ROSA AMERICANA 2P MS
c.1670 PEWTER NEW YORKE IN AMERICA 1/4P MS
1652 WILLOW TREE MASSACHUSETTS 3P MS
1714 VIRGINIA GLOUCESTER COURTHOUSE 1S MS
1722 'GEORGIVS' ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
1722 'DEII' HARP RIGHT HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1724/3 'DEI GRATIA' ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
1724/3 'D GRATIA' ROSA AMERICANA 1P MS
1724 ROSA AMERICANA 2P MS
1724 'DEI' ABOVE HIBERNIA 1/2P MS
1760 SMALL LETTERS HIBERNIA-VOCE POPULI 1/4P MS
1723 HIBERNIA 1/2P SP
1724 DATE IN EXERGUE HIBERNIA PATTERN 1/2P SP
1773 VIRGINIA "1P" PF
1774/3 SILVER VIRGINIA "1S" PF
1733 ROSA AMERICANA 2P PF
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