The NGC Universal ID is a four digit alphanumeric that groups coins based on a unique combination of date, mintmark, denomination and striking process (MS, PF, or SP). These IDs are a simple organization of all coins prior to variety attribution and grading.
The country was in a bit of an upheaval when this coin was struck. President James A. Garfield had narrowly won the election of 1880 and entered the White House in early 1881. In July of that year an embittered attorney shot Garfield, severely wounding him and he died two months later. That swept Chester Arthur into the Presidency in 1881. Arthur demonstrated that he was above factions within the Republican Party, and seemed to go against long-standing friendships with those who wanted political favors of him. In 1882 the Arthur Administration enacted the first general immigration law. Arthur approved a measure in 1882 to exclude 'paupers, criminals, and lunatics' from entering the country. Congress also suspended Chinese immigration for ten years, later making this restriction permanent. By 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Act, which established a bipartisan Civil Service Commission, which made certain Government positions obtainable only through competitive written examinations and protected employees against removal for political reasons. Arthur also tried to lower tariff rates to reduce the annual surpluses collected, but Congress in turn raised as many tariff limits as he cut. Arthur helped push through Congress the Tariff Act of 1883, but this hurt certain Westerners and Southerners who flocked to the Democratic Party to redress this slight. Arthur lost the next election, as the political winds turned against him. Considering how distrusted Arthur was at the time he entered the White House, by the time he left he had earned much respect from both parties as an able administrator.
Description and Analysis courtesy of Heritage Auctions and may not be republished without written permission.
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