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Early Dimes (1796-1837)
Draped Bust, Small Eagle (1796-97)
Although the dime is an essential part of the decimal coinage system, it was one of the last coins issued by the United States Mint when operations first began. By the time it made its debut in 1796, as the Draped Bust/Small Eagle dime, the Mint had already been making copper cents and half cents for three years; silver dollars, half dollars and half dimes for two years; and even two gold coins—the eagle and half eagle—for a year. The only other coins delayed, like the dime, until 1796, were the quarter dollar and quarter eagle.
It’s not as though the dime was an afterthought. Actually, Thomas Jefferson had called for such a coin as far back as 1783 as part of a proposed decimal system. He was joined in his advocacy by Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton and the man who would become the first mint director, eminent scientist David Rittenhouse. The decimal system was gradually gaining acceptance for use with calculations, but it had not yet been used for any nation’s monetary structure. The founding fathers believed that not only was decimal coinage an efficient, workable method for commerce, but it also symbolized a break from the Old World.
Hamilton, the nation’s first treasury secretary, bolstered this view in 1791 in his formal report to Congress, outlining a plan for a national mint and coinage. He recommended the issuance of coins in six denominations—including a silver piece “which shall be, in weight and value, one tenth part of a silver unit or dollar.” He suggested that the dollar be called the “unit,” with its tenth part being known as simply a “tenth.”
These names never took hold, but the basic Mint Act of April 2, 1792, did include provision for both a silver dollar and a coin one-tenth thereof to be called a “disme.” The term disme—pronounced the same as “dime” and later anglicized to be spelled the same—is French for “decimal.” It first gained wide usage in 1585 when Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin published a pamphlet (later translated into French, and then into English) as Disme: the art of tenths, or, Decimal arithmetic.
The word “disme” never appeared on a regular-issue United States coin. But in 1792, before the start of official federal coinage, about 1,500 half dismes and a handful of dismes were struck bearing the statement of value in this now strange-seeming phraseology. Although these are authorized U.S. issues, they are generally regarded as patterns or provisional pieces. Only three 1792 dismes are known today in silver—with about fifteen others struck in copper.
After that tentative start, four years would pass before the Mint produced the first ten-cent coins intended for circulation. The dime (or disme) remained on the back burner. The dollar, perceived as the most prestigious coin of the new silver issues, was made first. Then, when production problems forced the Mint to stop making dollars, it turned instead to half dollars and half dimes.
Why no dimes? Numismatic researcher R.W. Julian largely attributes the delay to lack of public demand for this small silver coin, whether from merchants and their customers or from bullion depositors. Commercial needs were met adequately by the large numbers of Spanish reales then in circulation: The one-real coin, worth one “bit.” or 12-1/2 cents, provided a convenient and readily available means to pay for small purchases. Meanwhile, depositors who left silver bullion with the Mint seeking silver coinage in return, much preferred large coins—especially silver dollars—to small ones like the dime.
By the time that production of dimes finally began the Mint had already modified the original designs of the other silver coins, so the dime denomination missed an entire cycle. The first regular issue silver coins had featured the so-called Flowing Hair portrait of Miss Liberty, but by 1796 this likeness had given way to a more sedate Draped Bust portrait—and that’s the one that appeared on the very first dimes.
The Draped Bust/Small Eagle design by Mint Chief Engraver Robert Scot features a buxom portrait of Liberty, her flowing hair tied by a ribbon and her neckline covered with drapery, encircled by stars at the sides. The inscription LIBERTY appears above and the date below. The reverse depicts a small, spread-winged eagle perched upon clouds and surrounded by palm and olive branches. Encircling this is the motto UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The coin carries no statement of value—curiously, the Mint Act of 1792 required that only the copper cent and half-cent be inscribed with denominations.
Pieces dated 1796 have fifteen stars—one for each state in the Union then. In 1797 some dimes were struck with sixteen stars (reflecting Tennessee’s admission as the 16th state) and some with thirteen, symbolizing the thirteen original states. Such dies were prepared after the Mint abandoned the idea of adding an extra star for each new state.
Legend has it that Liberty’s portrait was based on a drawing of Philadelphia socialite Ann Willing Bingham, one of the most beautiful women of her time. The drawing was prepared by portraitist Gilbert Stuart—reportedly at the urging of President George Washington himself, who felt the early coins were in need of artistic improvement. Stuart’s sketch was translated to plaster by artist John Eckstein, and the dies were then executed by Scot.
This first regular issue dime was minted for only two years. In 1798 the small, naturalistic eagle gave way to a larger heraldic version, creating a brand new type. During this brief run, the Mint produced a total of 47,396 pieces. Although Mint records show a slightly higher output in 1797, the late Walter Breen, a noted numismatic scholar, speculated that some dimes made in 1797 may have been dated 1796. Dimes dated 1797 are rarer across the grade spectrum than the first-year pieces, and particularly so in Mint State.
At least several dozen uncirculated 1796s exist—a few with prooflike surfaces, possibly made as presentation pieces for VIPs. The famed collector, Colonel E.H.R. Green, son of “The Witch of Wall Street,” fabulously wealthy Hetty Green, possessed a small hoard of uncirculated 1796s, all of which were dispersed after his death in 1936.
There are only three basic varieties in the series: the 1796, the 1797 with sixteen stars and the 1797 with thirteen stars. Thus, some collectors pursue complete sets, despite the high cost of each component. Many, however, treat this as a type coin and acquire just one specimen to represent the series. When grading this design, wear will first show on Liberty’s bust, shoulder and the hair above the ear and at the forehead. On the reverse, check the eagle’s head and wing tops.
Draped Bust, Heraldic Eagle (1798-1807)
At the end of the 18th century the United States of America was just beginning to grow. Vermont achieved statehood in 1791, followed by Kentucky the next year. The western frontier was still in the eastern half of the continent, stretching from Alabama to the Ohio Valley, but that would change dramatically in the coming decade with the addition of the vast Louisiana Territory. Population growth continued to explode, fueled in part by a flood of European immigrants fleeing the Napoleonic Wars. By 1796 another territory—Tennessee—had enough permanent residents to be admitted to the Union as the sixteenth state.
Carrying on the tradition of recognizing each new state, the United States Mint’s chief engraver, Robert Scot, added a sixteenth star to the coinage dies. But it didn’t take long for Mint Director Elias Boudinot to realize that, as the country grew, this practice would soon get out of hand. He ordered the number of stars reduced to a more manageable thirteen, symbolizing the original colonies. While only a slight adjustment, it demonstrated just how concerned Mint officials were about the appearance of the nation’s coins at the time. The new edict served a practical purpose as well, for fewer stars meant fewer die punchings, as each device was placed separately into the dies by hand.
Mint employees had been under a lot of pressure since the very beginning. Congress considered abandoning the idea of a federal mint even before it opened. There were always quality problems, both in design and execution. After the 1793 Chain cent was so severely criticized, officials became extremely sensitive to public opinion. They quickly realized that the new nation’s coins must not only be of proper weight and fineness but must also look as solid and respectable as their European counterparts. To that end, Scot began to rework the coinage designs.
There were limitations, however, as to how much of an improvement could be accomplished. After all, Scot’s talents as an engraver and die-sinker were modest at best, and it was his designs that were receiving much of the criticism in the first place. But a facelift was in the cards, and as chief engraver, it was Scot’s show.
His Draped Bust/Small Eagle dimes, first introduced in 1796, were based on a drawing by noted portraitist Gilbert Stuart. The coin featured a draped bust of Liberty flanked by thirteen stars—six right, seven left. Although somewhat crude and certainly unfashionable by today’s standards, the matronly bust was well suited to contemporary tastes: It was supposedly modeled after Mrs. William Bingham, a socialite who was considered the most beautiful and charming woman in Philadelphia. The reverse of the coin, however, was another matter. Its scrawny, hatchling eagle was widely disliked. In 1798 Scot replaced the small eagle with the scaled down version of the Great Seal of the United States that was first seen on the gold quarter eagle of 1796. This depicted a heraldic eagle with the Union Shield on its breast and a ribbon inscribed E PLURIBUS UNUM in its beak. Judging from the lack of negative comment, this new Draped Bust/Heraldic Eagle combination obviously came closer than the previous design to satisfying the objections of critics.
All dimes of this type were struck at the Philadelphia Mint. Eight years are represented in the series (no dimes were made bearing the dates 1799 or 1806), with production totaling only 422,010 pieces. The most plentiful dates, accounting for more than 65% of the total mintage, are the last two, 1805 and 1807. The rarest issues are the 1798 with thirteen-star reverse and the low mintage 1804.
Even though it was short-lived, the series has many varieties, an inherent problem of issues produced with the relatively crude technology of the Mint’s early years. Major and minor design variations include overdates, differing sized date punches, thirteen- and sixteen-star reverses and four- and five-berry reverses. Curiously, Yeoman’s Guide Book lists fourteen date and variety combinations, Breen’s Encyclopedia lists seventeen and the bible of avid dime variety collectors, Early United States Dimes 1796-1837, lists twenty-one. So, depending on your aspirations, it’s possible to have a “complete” set of Draped Bust/Heraldic Eagle dimes with anywhere from eight pieces (one for each year issued) to twenty-one pieces (the number of varieties recognized by advanced specialists).
Generally, variety devotees and date collectors pursue coins in VF to XF grade, while type collectors seek pieces grading AU or better. Mint state specimens are quite rare, but examples dated 1805 or 1807 are available with some frequency.
An explanation is in order for the rare 13 star variety of 1798. It seems that economy took precedence over all other considerations during this time. Even though thirteen stars had been mandated in 1797, before the Heraldic Eagle reverse appeared on the dime, unworn 16 star reverse dies from the 1797 quarter eagle were used for the bulk of 1798 dime production. With less than a millimeter difference in the size of the two coins, the two dies were interchangeable, and serviceable quarter eagle reverse dies would be used to strike dimes in several years.
Grading this design can be especially challenging. Striking details are often weak or non-existent in certain areas, particularly for the 1807 issue. This weakness in strike can make a high grade (XF or better) coin appear to have more wear than it actually does, in which case the coin’s grade must be determined by the amount of remaining mint luster. Wear first shows on Liberty’s hair above the ear and at the forehead. On the reverse, the high points are the shield, head, tail and top edges of the wings.
There are some readily identifiable lightweight counterfeits dated 1800, but counterfeits are not a particular problem with this series. Ironically though, it was the issue of counterfeiting that would ultimately lead to the demise of the design. Mint officials were continually striving for uniformity among coins as a means to discourage counterfeiting. With engraver John Reich’s arrival at the Mint in 1807, more progress was made in that direction. Reich succeeded in reducing the number of individual operations needed for each working die. The Heraldic design required between 34 and 37 design elements to be added by hand. With Reich’s new Capped Bust design introduced in 1809, the number dropped to 24, an obvious savings in labor. In addition, the coins were more uniform, therefore harder to counterfeit successfully. Production was greatly increased, as a quick glance at the mintages for the Capped Bust series will show.
Capped Bust, Large Diameter (1809-1828)
The first few years of the 19th century saw tremendous expansion for the fledgling United States. The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles to the nation, effectively doubling its size. Shortly after that the exploratory expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark proved the feasibility of an overland route to the Far West, encouraging western settlement and commerce. The country was expanding in population, also. The new democracy attracted thousands of immigrants from all over Europe, many of whom were fleeing the Napoleonic Wars.
It was March of 1807 before the fourth Mint Director, Robert-Patterson, finally hired the German born John Reich as second engraver. Born in Fuerth, Bavaria in 1768, this talented die cutter arrived in America as an indentured laborer and settled in Philadelphia about 1800. Reich sought employment at the Mint in 1801. Though he was unable to secure a permanent position at that time, an unidentified officer of the institution recognized his talents and generously purchased his freedom.
While the infant Mint had suffered since 1792 from a shortage of qualified engravers and mechanics (and Reich was certainly qualified), Patterson’s predecessor, Elias Boudinot, preferred delaying an offer of a permanent position to Reich until, as he wrote in a letter to President Thomas Jefferson, “. . . I have good evidence of his character.” A more likely reason was Boudinot’s reluctance to offend the aging and professionally mediocre Chief Engraver Robert Scot.
At that time the dime was still unfamiliar to most Americans. The Act of April, 1792, creating the decimal dollar, made a key component “dismes or tenths . . . a disme being a tenth part of a dollar.” However, the quarter dollar fit more easily into popular usage, as it was equal to the Spanish two-reales coin, or “two bits.” Its half was the Spanish silver real, equal to 12-1/2 cents. The high-silver content two-reales coins were legal tender.
Also in wide circulation but not a legal tender was a Spanish coin of inferior silver alloy struck in the 1700’s. Though called two reales, it was known throughout the former colonies as a pistareen. A dime was really half a pistareen, but the new ten-cent pieces were vastly outnumbered by the widely preferred silver one-real coins, however worn they might be.
Reich began work as second engraver to Scot, receiving a salary of $600 per year. From 1807 to 1817 he performed most of the chief engraver’s work without receiving the salary or prestige of the higher post. Coming aboard on April 1, he was cutting dies for his first Capped Bust coins, the 1807 half dollars, by April 2. Only after getting the half dollar, half eagle, cent and quarter eagle out of the way did Reich tackle the dime.
This era was one favoring Rubenesque beauty, as a glance at Scot’s dowdy Draped Bust obverse will show. As she first appeared on the 1809 Capped Bust dime Reich’s Liberty was, if anything, a trifle more streamlined than her predecessor. Fifty years later, U.S. Mint writer William Ewing DuBois would claim that the model for all these rather stout, ample-bosomed Liberties was a woman he called “Reich’s fat German mistress.”
The reverse bore an American eagle with head turned left, holding three arrows symbolizing strength, and an olive branch representing peace. On its breast is the Union Shield composed of six horizontal lines indicating blue, with 13 stripes below, six of these made of three vertical lines each indicating red. Such lines were an 18th century engraver’s standardized method of showing colors in black-and-white engravings; blue representing dominion, red signifying force, with white denoting purity. Encircling the top of the eagle is the inscription UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and a scroll with the incuse motto E PLURIBUS UNUM. Beneath the eagle is the denomination 10 C.
Reich prepared a single, steel punch of his Liberty bust, impressing it into each working die by blows of a small hammer. He then impressed each star by eye, seven on Liberty’s left, six on her right, placing the date in the space below the bust. Although known as “Large Size,” these dimes should more properly be called the “Open Collar” type. They were struck without a restraining collar, giving them a broad, low-rimmed look. Averaging 1.1 millimeters smaller in diameter than the preceding Draped Bust dime, this type is only large in relation to its smaller successor issued from 1828 onward. In reality, diameters vary widely over the years.
Capped Bust dime production was not continuous, with only three dates struck while Reich was in Mint employ. Dimes were issued dated 1809, 1811, 1814, 1820 through 1825 and 1827. Large quantities were struck only in 1820, 1821 and 1827. In all, over five million pieces were minted. All dates are available, with the low mintage 1809, 1811 and 1822 being the scarcest, though all are known in gem uncirculated condition. An unknown number of proofs, actually presentation pieces, exist for the years 1820 and later. Type collectors will have no problem finding premium examples; it’s mainly the variety collector who faces challenges with this series. Although variety collecting today has fewer adherents than in the past, Bust dime devotees are still quite numerous.
Die variety identification of early dimes started late. Most die varieties are identified by the position of the date, the spacing and alignment of stars, the size of 10 C. and the exact position of letters above the ends of the motto scroll. Most other denominations were carefully charted by die variety decades before any serious work was done with dimes. Popular coin books gave only major varieties such as large and small dates. The denomination finally received its in-depth study in 1984: Early United States Dimes 1796-1837, compiled by five students of the series and published by the John Reich Collectors Society.
When grading this series, take into account that weak strikes are common. On the obverse, wear will first show on the drapery at the front of the bust, the hair at the forehead and above the ear and the shoulder clasp. On the reverse, check the eagle’s claws, neck, and wings.
Weary of working for his meager salary, Reich resigned on March 31, 1817, exactly ten years after beginning employment at the Mint. In 1828 Chief Engraver William Kneass introduced the close collar coining method as part of the Mint’s quest for technological improvement and uniformity. The Capped Bust design was adapted to this new process, and the Small Size Capped Bust dime was born. It would be issued until 1837, when Christian Gobrecht’s Seated Liberty dime was unveiled.
Capped Bust, Small Diameter
In 1823, little more than a decade after the War of 1812 in which the United States fought for its free use of the seas, President James Monroe issued a foreign policy statement which was to affect the development of the Western Hemisphere for the next century. This Monroe Doctrine expressed in no uncertain terms that the USA would not tolerate European interference, control or influence in North and South America. It was a time when the nation was feeling its political and economic “oats.”
The United States Mint was gearing up to exercise its technological “muscle” also. William Kneass came aboard as chief engraver in January of 1824, and Samuel Moore as mint director later that year. Both men were charged with the task of increasing output and uniformity. To this end, in 1828 Kneass instituted a new process—minting coins within a close, reeded collar to standardize diameters. This practice also eliminated the time consuming method of manually placing reeding on the coin’s edge. Greatly speeding up production, it allowed the coins to stack evenly and discouraged counterfeiting. Total design uniformity was not yet realized however, as dies still required hand punching of numbers, letters and stars, and the devices themselves were different from punch to punch.
The newly designed equipment allowed the Mint to strike planchets of greater thickness. Adhering to the specifications for coin weight and alloy prescribed by the Mint Act of 1792 required the Mint to maintain the same standards as for the thinner and larger coins previously struck. Therefore, the diameters of the half dime, dime and quarter dollar, as well as those of the quarter eagle and half eagle, were all reduced.
Though the proposed reduction in the size of the dime was from 18.8 mm to 18.5 mm, new research shows that actual diameters varied over the years. There is really no consistent distinction between the large and small size diameters, particularly from 1828 through 1834. Due to this variance, this type could more properly be called the Close Collar Capped Bust dime. The main discernible difference from the previous large size or open collar type are the small radial beads inside a raised border, as opposed to the flat, widely spaced denticles of the earlier production. The new coin was also much thicker at the edges.
The Mint’s penchant for uniform designs dictated that all United States coins share one of three basic portraits of Liberty: One for copper coins, a second for silver coins and a third for gold. The Capped Bust portrait of Liberty in use when Moore became Director was the one adopted by his father-in-law, the previous mint director, Robert Patterson. After Patterson hired John Reich as second engraver in 1807, Reich proceeded to redesign all the coins then in use.
The first dime design was Robert Scot’s Draped Bust/Small Eagle motif issued in 1796. It was updated in 1798 with a heraldic eagle reverse, primarily in answer to criticism of Scot’s “scrawny eagle.” Lack of demand, however, caused the Mint to cease production of dimes after June of 1807.
Reich’s new design for the dime first appeared in 1809 and was later copied by Kneass for the reduced version. It featured a left facing bust of Liberty wearing a cap, with a diadem bearing the incused inscription LIBERTY. Thirteen stars are arrayed on the sides of the bust, with the date below. The reverse depicts an eagle with a shield on its breast, clutching arrows and an olive branch. Above the eagle are the inscriptions UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and E PLURIBUS UNUM, with the denomination 10 C. below.
The reduced size Capped Bust dime was introduced in 1828, the same year “Old Hickory,” Andrew Jackson, became president. It ended its run after nine years, shortly after excessive speculation had caused the financial Panic of 1837, which resulted in a collapse in real estate, stock and commodity prices. Total mintage during this period was approximately 6,730,000 pieces. In addition, small numbers of proofs are known for each year.
As with all coins produced at the U.S. Mint during this time, there are some interesting varieties. The 1830/29 overdate and 1829 with a curled base numeral 2 in its date are the most notable. Variety collecting today, however, has few adherents. As coins have become more expensive and widely dispersed over the years, there are few collectors assembling date sets of Bust dimes, let alone variety collections. Most choose to own a representative type example. While circulated pieces are readily available for every year, this design type becomes very elusive above Mint State-64. Small numbers of exceptionally well preserved pieces do exist, however, grading as high as MS-67. The toughest dates to find in high grades are 1828 Small Date, 1830/29 and 1837.
When grading this design, highpoints on the obverse to check for wear are the drapery at the front of the bust, the hair at the forehead and above the ear and the shoulder clasp. On the reverse, check the eagle’s claws, neck and wings. Weak striking is common and should not be mistaken for wear.
Since the first branch mint that produced silver coins was the New Orleans facility, which began operations in 1838, all of the dimes of this type were manufactured in Philadelphia. It is notable that the Philadelphia Mint was moved from its original building on Seventh Street to the new building at Chestnut and Juniper in 1833. The total cost of the new building, ground, machinery and fixtures was $209,230. The original mint property was then sold in 1835 as two parcels for a total price of $10,100.
Director Moore was ultimately replaced in 1835 by the person with whom-he had originally competed for the appointment, his brother-in-law Robert Maskell Patterson, son of the former Director, Robert Patterson. The younger Patterson instituted the use of steam powered presses, which greatly increased the efficiency and output of the Mint. Furthermore, he introduced the famous and long lasting Seated Liberty silver coinage designed by Christian Gobrecht, which replaced the Capped Bust dime in 1837.
Coins in Category
1796 10C MS
1797 10C MS
1797 16 STARS JR-1 10C MS
1797 13 STARS JR-2 10C MS
1798 10C MS
1798/7 16 STARS REV JR-1 10C MS
1798/7 13 STARS REV JR-2 10C MS
1800 10C MS
1801 10C MS
1802 10C MS
1803 10C MS
1804 10C MS
1804 13 STARS REV JR-1 10C MS
1804 14 STARS REV JR-2 10C MS
1805 5 BERRIES JR-1 10C MS
1805 4 BERRIES JR-2 10C MS
1807 JR-1 10C MS
1809 JR-1 10C MS
1811/09 JR-1 10C MS
1814 10C MS
1820 10C MS
1821 10C MS
1822 JR-1 10C MS
1823/2 10C MS
1824/2 10C MS
1825 10C MS
1827 10C MS
1828 LARGE DATE JR-2 10C MS
1828 SMALL DATE JR-1 10C MS
1829 10C MS
1830 10C MS
1830/29 10C MS
1831 10C MS
1832 10C MS
1833 10C MS
1834 10C MS
1835 10C MS
1836 10C MS
1837 CAPPED 10C MS
1796 10C SP
1820 10C PF
1821 10C PF
1824/2 10C PF
1825 10C PF
1827 10C PF
1828 SMALL DATE JR-1 10C PF
1829 10C PF
1830 10C PF
1831 10C PF
1833 10C PF
1834 10C PF
1835 10C PF
1836 10C PF
1837 CAPPED 10C SP
1837 10C PF
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